There are several effective strategies that can be used to build roads in rural areas. These include using local resources, doing noun technology, and building retaining walls.
Local resource-based approach
One of the most important challenges facing local authorities in rural areas is the maintenance of the roads in the region. Despite multiple interventions and capacity building programs, rural roads in many developing countries remain in poor condition. In order to address this issue, the study aims to examine current and best practices of local authority maintenance management. It also proposes better practices and provides a framework for improving the performance of local authorities.
To achieve the most efficient and effective practices, the resource-based view theory was used to develop a maintenance management framework. The theory suggests that resources and strategic management are key components of achieving effective road maintenance.
While the performance improvement theory emphasizes the importance of process improvements and capabilities, the resource-based view describes the role of resources in the success of strategic management. These theories are based on the concept of sustainability.
Local resource-based approaches are necessary to create sustainable levels of rural road maintenance. In addition, these strategies should be designed in a way that meets the needs of the community and the surrounding environment.
A mature maintenance management framework should also include an assessment of the value of the maintenance operations to the overall cost of maintaining the roadways. This will be of help in minimizing maintenance costs.
Currently, the average cost of road maintenance is about US$170,000 per km of road annually. This represents 1% of the total asset value. If these costs are lowered, the local community can benefit significantly.
Although local authorities have a mission, they do not adequately allocate resources to maintain rural road networks. They need a better framework and an increased motivation to achieve sustainable performance.
To improve the effectiveness of the community’s efforts, it is recommended that local contractors and individuals make use of simple equipment and labour. This can avoid the high mobilisation costs associated with traditional construction processes.
Do-nou technology is a simple and easy to use method of road construction. This method is suitable for use in rural access roads in developing countries. The Do-Nou method has been successfully applied in Africa, Asia, and Middle and South America.
Using Do-Nou technology for road construction promotes self-reliance in rural communities. It has been shown to improve the trafficability of rural roads and provides a sustainable solution to long-neglected rural road issues.
Several research projects have been conducted to evaluate the Do-Nou technology and its applications in road maintenance. The results showed that the method is easy to use and does not require compaction equipment. Furthermore, it is economical.
One of the main problems of rural access roads in developing countries is their poor trafficability. Impassable roads lead to high transportation costs and reduced agricultural productivity.
There are many approaches to improve the trafficability of rural roads. One such approach is to use locally available materials. For this to work, communities must be involved in the selection and management of the base material.
Using Do-Nou bags for the base course has been proven to be a practical, cost-effective, and sustainable solution for improving the trafficability of rural access roads. Moreover, it can be used for repair of sections with gentle slopes, sags, and flat terrain.
Using Do-Nou bags in the base course also promotes community involvement and participation in road construction. A training program has been implemented to facilitate the transfer of the technology to the rural communities.
The project has improved access to markets and health facilities for the locals. The project has also increased the number of small business entrepreneurs. In addition, it has provided better access to educational facilities.
The Culverts and Small Bridges Working Group was convened as directed by Section 102 of the Fiscal Year 2019 General Appropriations Act. The working group evaluated the impacts of existing environmental rules on culverts and small bridges and developed a suite of recommendations.
The project was initiated by the Division of Ecological Restoration (DER). DER offers one-on-one technical assistance to municipal road managers. DER also administers the Culvert Replacement Municipal Assistance Grant Program, which provides financial support to communities to replace aging culverts with better designed structures.
Undersized culverts and small bridges negatively impact fish and wildlife movement. They can also contribute to flooding and flood damage. A culvert that fails during a large storm can cost far more than the actual repair.
In addition, culverts support other access pathways over water. This can create travel delays, flooding, and other hazards. As a result, communities end up spending taxpayer dollars to replace culverts.
To improve resiliency, the Commonwealth should replace antiquated structures. Specifically, culverts and small bridges that are degraded need to be replaced. These projects can help protect against climate change adaptation and public safety benefits.
While a larger structure may be more expensive, it is estimated to have a fifty- to hundred-year lifespan. Structures meeting the Stream Crossing Standards are estimated to have lower lifetime costs than traditional structures.
In order to improve resiliency, the Commonwealth should expand the number of grant programs and funding sources available to replace culverts and small bridges. Currently, most municipalities have limited opportunities to increase capacity. Some towns and cities are eligible for other programs, such as the New England Forests and Rivers Fund, which provides funding to preserve healthy forests.
Retaining walls are a staple of rural road construction. They are typically constructed on the valley side of a road. Typically, they are a combination of sand, boulders, or cement. However, some communities use prefabricated walls, or more accurately, blocks. The main advantage of retaining wall construction is that it is more economical and less time consuming to build. Aside from cost reduction, it helps to keep roads open to the hordes.
It also helps that governments are taking responsibility for maintaining their roads. Often, they are able to make such projects sustainable through cooperation in material provision. This is a particularly important feature in rural areas where the cost of transportation is a big deal. Soil type and proximity to a flowing stream are factors affecting the strength of the wall.
In the context of retaining walls, the best thing to do is to consult a soil engineer. The best design for your particular site will depend on the type of block you are using, the elevation of the cliffs you are constructing your wall on, and the size of the corresponding roadway. Also, be sure to follow the manufacturer’s directions to the letter. Otherwise, you might end up with a crooked and wobbly structure.
Normally, the most interesting part of a retaining wall is the foundation. Depending on the size of the site, it can be as simple as a concrete slab or as elaborate as a concrete vault. While cement can be expensive, its cost can be minimized by using bags of in-situ soil. As such, this technique has proven to be a boon to small villages. Using this technology has enabled a number of communities in Africa and Asia to realize their dreams of a better quality of life.
Costs of road design
A rural two-lane undivided road costs $2-3 million per mile. While this is less than the cost of a six-lane interstate highway, it still represents a significant amount of money. The number of lanes, type of construction, and location of the road will also determine the cost of the project.
In addition to the costs involved with the design and construction of a road, the annual maintenance costs can be quite high. If a road is not designed properly, it will require costly repair. That’s why it’s essential to use the best materials possible, take a screw pile for example, in order to create a strong and durable road.
Fortunately, there are several ways to reduce the costs of repairing and maintaining roads. However, this is not an easy process. One method involves treating the base of the road. By applying Perma-Zyme, a substance that strengthens soil and improves subbase strength, the cost of a paved road can be cut by up to 80 percent.
Another option is to use gravel instead of bitumen. This is more expensive than a sealed surface, but it is more durable.
Using a combination of gravel and asphalt can also reduce the cost of a road. Usually, the base material is Type II aggregate, which provides a stable base for asphalt. These types of surfaces can also be used for cross-drainage structures.
Lastly, advanced traffic management systems can mitigate the environmental impacts of maintenance activities. However, it is difficult to find data on actual costs of rural roads. As such, there are many localities in search of innovative ways to maintain these essential infrastructures.
It is important to perform rapid, low-cost assessments at the programming stage. The results will help prioritize the core network and determine what types of road work are most urgent.
A good road must be a sound investment. It must be affordable and offer a reliable level of service.